Have you ever wondered how we recognize whether a person walking by on the street is a friend or a stranger? We look at them and think about how they look without even realizing it. If their face shape, eye color, hairstyle, body type, gait, or even their clothes match a person we know, we recognize this person (image recognition). When you do this brain work, it only takes a second.

While it’s not uncommon for youngsters to confuse cats and dogs, especially if they haven’t been exposed to a variety of animal varieties, colors, and sizes, it’s easy to teach them the difference after they’ve seen enough of their furry companions.

Our brain working mechanism

Every time we learn something new, a neuron in our brain lights up with an electrical impulse and sends the information to other neurons, forming connections. These connections shape everything we know. When we see a new type of cat, the same connection strengthens, making it easier for us to recognize an animal as a cat the next time.

How does artificial intelligence do it?

Image recognition with deep learning is a key application of Artificial Intelligence and computer vision. Deep learning uses neural networks that are similar to neurons in the brain, but those networks are artificial. This is a reason why the network is called a neural network. In image recognition, this is the most important factor.

So before we get into the main concept, let’s be clear about some basic concepts in image recognition.

computer vision

Using computational methods, computers understand and interpret the content of digital images and videos. A picture or video could also be data from thermal or infrared sensors or other sources.

Image detection

An image or object detection technology is used by computers to process the image and look for things in it. For example, to figure out how many things are in the picture, you should use image detection.

Image classification

It is a process of labeling things in the picture—grouping them into certain groups. As an example, if you ask Google to show you pictures of dogs, the network will show you a lot of photos, illustrations, and even drawings with dogs on them. In this version, the neural network has to process different images with different objects, find them, and classify them based on the type of the item in the picture.

image detection and classification

Image recognition 

Image recognition is the ability of AI to find an object, classify it, and recognize it when it sees it. The last step is very close to what a person can do with images. In order to unlock your smartphone, you have to let it scan your face. This is how it works: The first thing the system does is recognize the face. Then, the system has to classify the face as human and only then decide whether it belongs to the person who owns the smartphone. A lot of work goes into this.

There are two ways to do image recognition with machine learning.

One way is to use algorithms to learn hidden information from a dataset of good and bad samples (supervised learning).

Deep learning is the most common way to do machine learning. This is when a model has a lot of hidden layers that are used.

Deep learning, as well as powerful AI hardware and GPUs, has aided in the advancement of image recognition. With deep learning, image classification and face recognition algorithms can do better than humans can and find objects in real time.

It’s possible to use modern deep learning computer vision methods to analyze video streams from common, cheap surveillance cameras or webcams to do AI video analytics.

Image Recognition Process

It is one of the things that deep neural networks (DNNs) are good at. Neural networks are computer systems that can figure out patterns. This is how it works: The input layer gets a signal. The hidden layer processes it, and the output layer makes a decision or predicts what the data will be like in the future. Each layer of the network has a group of nodes (artificial neurons) that do the work. Thus, the more layers a network has, the more predictive potential it possesses.

There are a few steps at the heart of how image recognition systems work, and they help them work.

A dataset for training data

The image recognition models need data to train on (video, picture, photo, etc.). Neural networks need images from an acquired dataset to learn how to think about how certain groups look. The algorithm looks at these examples, learns about how each category looks, and eventually learns how to recognize each image class. 

However, deep learning requires that you manually label the data to show which samples are good and which are bad (Image Annotation). It’s called “supervised learning.” As the labels of the images are known, the network is used to reduce the error rate.

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are the most commonly used architecture for image identification and detection (CNNs). Convolutional neural networks are made up of layers with small groups of neurons, each of which can see a small part of an image. The results from all the collections in a layer are mixed together in a way that makes up the whole picture. The layer below then does the same thing with the new image representation. Thus, the system is able to learn more about how the image is put together.

Facial Recognition

An image recognition model that can detect different poses would need to see a lot of people in different poses to figure out what makes them unique from each other.

So let’s look at facial recognition and how it works. When you think of a human face, you probably think of a set of basic features. A face has eyes, a nose, and a mouth, but of course there are more features. The face has a lot more to it than just these features. To get a good idea of how a person looks, you should look at their whole face.

How hard this problem can become If you draw a lot of simple faces, you’ll notice that they have a lot of different characteristics, like the width of the nose, the distance between the eyes, the shape of the mouth, and so on. Some facial recognition technologies look at up to 80 factors on the face to help them find unique features and identities. They observe very detailed things like the depth of eyes, the height of cheekbones, and the shape of the jawline. Computers have learned which features stay the same as we get older, and they look very closely at these features.

Image Recognition with Deep Learning neural network

Image detection and classification

2d to 3d Image Recognition Technology

The facial recognition system on a lot of phones will ask you to move your face around when you set it up. This is so the phone can see how you look from different angles. Other systems use 2D to 3D technologies that map 2D images of your face onto a 3D model to figure out how you would look from different angles. These technologies are called “2d to 3d.”

Computers measure these factors down to a scale smaller than a millimeter in order to make a face print, which is basically a fingerprint for your face. These face prints have become very accurate. They can even tell the difference between identical twins as technology has become more widespread. The number of ways it can be used has also grown. Right now, we use facial recognition all the time. So, this is how neural networks identify the person.


Our daily lives are becoming increasingly reliant on this technology. It doesn’t look like that’s going to stop any time soon. This is important for us because these technologies are learning as much as they can. We need to stay educated and informed about these technologies.